II c.5, in Statutes of the Realm (London: HM Stationery Office, 1816), 2: 85-6. 7 Agnus Dei made of wax, 18th century, blessed by the Pope Leo XIII. 82 25 The agni dei shown above vary considerably in size. Ibid., see also This agnus dei, shown in Figure 3, bears the arms of Pope Gregory XIII, the pontiff who blessed it, and is thought to have belonged to Campion himself.Footnote For a summary of Protestant and Catholic accounts of the Black Assizes see In the court record Eleanor Brome’s mother, Catherine Brome (née Windsor), is referred to as Lady Paulet, which was the surname of her first husband. Trevor Johnson has described the importance of sacramentals in attracting crowds to Jesuit missions in the Upper Palatinate.Footnote Roger Bellingham’s will, proved at York in 1541, for instance, left instructions for an agnus dei and a ring to be left to his daughter, Elizabeth Fitzthomas.Footnote Rigg, JM, ed., Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs Preserved Principally at Rome in the Vatican Archives and Library, 2 vols (London: HM Stationery Office, 1916), 1 93 Mayne attended St John’s College, Oxford with Edmund Campion and Gregory Martin, and was persuaded by them to convert to Catholicism. n. 1. It could signify the bringing in of baptised persons, or the return of those who had formerly fallen into heresy, into membership of the Roman Catholic Church. Statutes of the Realm, 4 vols (London: HM Stationery Office, 1819), 4.1: 657-58. 54 Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. The History of Agnus Dei . Anne Percy escaped to the Low Countries and spent the rest of her life in exile. Google Scholar: 1100. Cooper, John, The Queen’s Agent: Francis Walsingham at the Court of Elizabeth I (London: Bloomsbury, 2011), 180-182 99 Hume, Calendar of Letters and State Papers in the Archives of Simancas, 3: 85-6. A sixteenth-century agnus dei which was discovered at Lyford Grange in 1959, where the Jesuit Edmund Campion was captured in 1581, is now kept at Campion Hall in Oxford. Johnson, Trevor, ‘Blood, Tears, and Xavier Water: Missionaries and Popular Religion in the Eighteenth-Century Upper Palatinate’, in Robert Scribner and Trevor Johnson, eds., Popular Religion in Germany and Central Europe (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996),183-202 This data will be updated every 24 hours. Dillon, Anne, ‘“To Seek Out Comforts and Companions of His Own Kind and Condition”: The Benedictine Rosary Confraternity and the Chapel of Cardigan House, London’, in Lowell Gallagher, ed., Redrawing the Map of Early Modern English Catholicism (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012), 272-308 Members of Catholic networks who received the sacramentals from missionary priests would also have been able to assist in reconciling other members of their social circles. Records and letters from the missions to England in the seventeenth century are filled with accounts of agni dei being used to cure ailments and protect people from natural disasters. 26 Peter Holmes, Elizabethan Casuistry (London: Catholic Record Society, 1981), 66-7. Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office, Henry IV, 4 vols (London: HM Stationery Office, 1903), 1: 224. Consequently, we still see traces of the sacramentals being used and passed between family members in this period. By permission of the Governors of Stonyhurst College, Lancashire. It is based on the saying of John the Baptist: “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” (John 1:29).In the Roman Catholic liturgy the Agnus Dei is employed in the following text: “Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us! See See See A.J. The papal faculties for the Jesuit mission to England, compiled separately from those of the Jesuit General, gave no explicit instructions to the Jesuits concerning the dissemination of sacred objects.Footnote He is one of the most celebrated composers of the 20th century: music critic Donal Henahan stated that "Probably no other American composer has ever enjoyed such early, such persistent and such long-lasting acclaim." 15 In England few agni dei have survived from before the eighteenth century, partly due to the fragility of the materials with which they were made, and partly because of the legal restrictions placed upon them in the late sixteenth century. Musacchio, ‘Lambs, Coral, Teeth’, 144-8. The potential for links between the possession of an agnus dei and a commitment to resisting Elizabeth and her government are also apparent in Ireland during this period. Its expansive protective powers made it an appealing gift for women, children, and men at multiple levels of society.Footnote 29 68 Total loading time: 0.985 Walsham, Alexandra, ‘Miracles and the Counter-Reformation Mission to England’, Historical Journal 46 (2003): 798 Walsham, Alexandra, ‘Translating Trent? At the turn of the century William Bowes, the English ambassador in Scotland, reported the activities of John Ogilvy at the Scottish court, calling him ‘a dangerous instrument against God and his church’ who ‘professes himself a Roman Catholic’. The Middlesex session rolls for 1578 recorded the indictments of Eleanor Brome and Elizabeth Barram for wearing agni dei ‘brought into this realm from the See of Rome’. See 17. 63 Despite this and the statute prohibiting them, agni dei remained popular with English Catholics throughout the rest of Elizabeth’s reign. "clr": false, AGNUS DEI Meaning: "lamb of God." 10 As Lucy Underwood has noted, reconciliation had multiple meanings in English Catholicism. 9 Brown, Nancy Pollard, ‘Paperchase: The Dissemination of Catholic Texts in Elizabethan England’, in English Manuscript Studies, 1 (1989): 120-143 At the end of 1586, the Jesuit Robert Southwell wrote to Robert Persons, who had left England in 1581 after Edmund Campion’s capture and execution by the Elizabethan authorities, requesting faculties to bless 2,000 rosaries and 6,000 grains of incense to address the demands of the laity for hallowed devotional aids.Footnote The role of missionary priests in encouraging this culture of resistance through the distribution of sacred objects also merits further reflection. Underwood, Lucy, Childhood, Youth, and Religious Dissent in Post-Reformation England (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, chapter 2. 53 3 14 "comments": true, Walsham, Alexandra, ‘The Pope’s Merchandise and the Jesuits’ Trumpery: Catholic Relics and Protestant Polemic in Post-Reformation England’, in Jennifer Spinks and Dagmar Eichberger, eds., Religion, the Supernatural, and Visual Culture in Early Modern Europe: An Album Amicorum for Charles Zika (Leiden: Brill, 2015), 370-409 It also shows signs of being altered to fit into the reliquary case amongst papers that list the names of English Jesuits. Google Scholar. London, British Library (Hereafter, BL), Lansdowne MS 25/30 f. 63. Those caught wearing or using any such items would likewise suffer the penalties of the statute.Footnote 2 : an image of a lamb often with a halo and a banner and cross used as a symbol of Christ. 55 The use of the title "Lamb of God" in liturgy is … From the late 1580s, both Jesuit and seminary priests played an active role in the distribution of sacred objects to Catholic communities. Lux-Sterritt, ‘“Virgo Becomes Virago”: Women in the Accounts of Seventeenth-Century English Catholic Missionaries’, Recusant History 30 (2011): 537-553 It will examine how the possession of an agnus dei acted not only as a tool of personal faith, but also as a symbol of defiance against the Elizabethan regime and an acknowledgement of the supremacy of papal authority. 6 These priests played a vital role in the circulation and distribution of devotional objects as part of these processes. Another ‘heretical’ woman who found herself haunted by spirits in 1633 repaired to a local Catholic noblewoman for help, and upon receiving an agnus dei to wear was immediately cured of her visions.Footnote 30 79. Google Scholar. Figure 5.1 Walsham, Alexandra, ‘Skeletons in the Cupboard: Relics After the English Reformation’, Past & Present 206, no. From the government’s perspective, their actions constituted a symbolic display of resistance to the queen that pointed to the potential of all English Catholics to commit treason and attempt to overthrow her. Havens, Earle and Patton, Elizabeth, ‘Underground Networks, Prisons, and the Circulation of Counter-Reformation Books in Elizabethan England’, in James Kelly and Susan Royal, eds., Early Modern English Catholicism: Identity, Memory, and Counter-Reformation (Leiden: Brill, 2016), 165-188 Google Scholar. The agnus dei was a popular devotional aid in pre-Reformation England and Europe, and had been in use from at least the eleventh century.Footnote Bowes affirmed that he was ‘drawn to believe’ this because he had seen Ogilvy’s ‘Agnus Dei, hosts, and such like Romish Trifles’.Footnote Thomas McCoog’s three volumes on the Society of Jesus in the British Isles: The Society of Jesus in Ireland, Scotland, and England 1541-1588: ‘Our Way of Proceeding?’ (Leiden: Brill, 1996)Google Scholar, The Society of Jesus in Ireland, Scotland, and England 1589-1597: Building the Faith of Saint Peter Upon the King of Spain’s Monarchy (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), and The Society of Jesus in Ireland, Scotland, and England, 1598-1606: ‘Lest Our Lamp Be Entirely Extinguished’ (Leiden: Brill, 2017). Google Scholar. The agnus dei could also be a mark of those who had been in contact with missionary priests. Snoek, Medieval Piety from Relics to the Eucharist, 296; see also Scribner, ‘The Reformation, Popular Magic, and the “Disenchantment of the World”’, 479-80. Clossey, Luke, Salvation and Globalization in the Early Jesuit Missions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 216-237 The use of sacred materials in this manner was common in other parts of early modern Europe. For the queen and her ministers, the excommunication called into question the loyalties of everyone in England who considered themselves Catholic, because the papacy now expected them to resist the queen if they wished to avoid excommunication themselves.Footnote Was of particular interest to missionaries reporting back to England to be added agnus dei historical period the absolution of one s! Common in other parts of Europe where the Reformation met with less success, this practice remained common the. 1567, British Library ( Hereafter, BL ), 1 Google Scholar Dei that Jesuit and seminary played... 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